Despite its importance to quality of life and development, water in Tanzania is a finite and vulnerable resource being unevenly distributed in space, time, quantity and quality across the country. Tanzania faces a water security crisis in some parts of the country, as water demands exceed available resources. Water scarcity raises concerns over issues of its allocation, use, quality and availability. Competition for water is rising due to increased demands of irrigation, hydropower generation and other uses. Past uncoordinated water resources planning and management has resulted in conflicts between the energy and agriculture sectors, between use for production and environmental protection, between water supply and wastewater discharge and between upstream and downstream users.

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